MARS THE RED PLANET
The elemental composition of Mars is different from Earth's in several significant ways. First, Martian meteorite analysis suggests that the planet's mantle is about twice as rich in iron as the Earth's mantle. The planet's distinctive red color is due to iron oxides on its surface. Second, its core is richer in sulphur. Third, the Martian mantle is richer in potassium and phosphorus than Earth's. The Martian crust contains a higher percentage of volatile elements such as sulphur and chlorine than the Earth's crust does. Many of these conclusions are supported by in situ analyses of rocks and soils on the Martian surface. Much of what we know about the elemental composition of Mars comes from orbiting spacecraft and landers. Most of these spacecraft carry spectrometers and other instruments to measure the surface composition of Mars by either remote sensing from orbit or in situ analyses on the surface. We also have many actual samples of Mars in the form of meteorites that have made their way to Earth. Martian meteorites, provide data on the chemical composition of Mars' crust and interior that would not otherwise be available except through a sample return mission. In other words, Mars is a miner's paradise, for potential future exploitation. Mars as a diameter of 4,220 miles (6791.4 Km), about 70% the size of Earth; And the gravity on Mars is 62% lower, at just 0.376 of the Earth standard.
Mars also has two small irregular shaped moons, possibly asteroids that fell into the gravitational force of the red planet. Phobos is the innermost and larger of the two natural satellites of Mars, with dimensions of 17x14x11 miles (27x22x18 kilometers). The other moon is Deimos, with dimensions of 9x7x6.8 miles (15x12x11 kilometers).
The Mars atmosphere is absolutely not breathable for humans and even the pressure is extremely low. Even if Mars saw its atmosphere artificially altered through geo-engineering, because of the much lower gravity, the atmospheric pressure would still be much to low to even attempt a walk outside on Mars without a protective environmental pressured suit. The atmosphere of Mars is primarily composed of carbon dioxide (95.32%), molecular nitrogen (2.6%) and argon (1.9%). It also contains trace levels of water vapor, oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and other noble gases. The atmosphere of Mars is much thinner than Earth's. The surface pressure is only about 610 pascals (0.088 psi) which is less than 1% of the Earth's value. The currently thin Martian atmosphere prohibits the existence of liquid water at the surface of Mars, but many studies suggest that the Martian atmosphere was much thicker in the past. The highest atmospheric density on Mars is equal to the density found 35 km above the Earth's surface. The atmosphere of Mars has been losing mass to space throughout history, and the leakage of gases still continues today.
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